Constituyente Ciudadana

Calendar of Events

Morelia, Michoacán. Citizen-Popular Constituent Forum-Workshop
March 5 @ 11:00 am – 2:00 pm

The Citizen-Popular Constituent Forum-Workshop will be held on Saturday, March 5 , at the Auditorium of the Philosophy Faculty of the University City in Morelia, Michoacán, from 11 am to 2 pm .

You will have the next day’s order:

-What does the Constituent do?

-Analysis of the national and etatal situation

-Discussion and work proposals

-Agreements and tasks

Ways Mexican Residents Can Prolong Their Lives

The global life expectancy age is estimated at 72 years, according to the United Nations. However, your ability to stay alive depends on several factors, including physical and emotional elements.

Mexico boasts of a high life expectancy age, a 77 but a little more for women. It’s one country that boasts excellent healthcare service, which is attributed to the high expectancy numbers. 

The mobility rate is also very low, similar to the birth rate.

 Some of the factors that positively contribute to these excellent numbers include

  • Excellent health care system
  • Proper die
  • Good nutrition
  • Quality lifestyle
  • Exercise and workouts

However, these are blanket elements, but you still find people dying at a young age. Some could be genetics, but also individual lifestyle comes in handy.

As a Mexican resident, since you now have good government policies that enhance one’s lifestyle.

It’s your duty to now exercise individual caution to ensure you are part of the statistics.

How to have a high life expectancy rate

  1. Eat healthily

Not everything in the markets meant for your consumption. As you do, your grocery shopping ensures you stick to healthy standards that promote proper health.

Eating healthy comes with numerous benefits.

They include

  • Keeps lifestyle diseases at bay
  • Promotes weight loss
  • Makes you stay positive and have good moods
  • Helps to improve your memory
  • Boosts your self-esteem and further confidence levels
  • Supports growth of the next generation

When we talk about eating healthy, what do we mean? What are the basics of healthy eating?

  • Eat more fruits and vegetables
  • Take more of plant protein and not moderate animal protein
  • Reduce intake of processed foods
  • Drink a lot of water to stay hydrated
  • Limit intake of sugars and soft drink instead consume fresh juice

Water is a critical component in body functions. You can only enjoy drinking water when it’s sweet and tasty.

This doesn’t define hard water. You have to use a water softener to remove the water’s problematic elements for well water with iron for you to meet the eight glasses per day threshold.

  • Engage in physical activity

The sedentary lifestyle associated with the digital world is our undoing as technology came as a savior.

Therefore, don’t go with the wave as a Mexican now that everything is in the palm of your hands.

Once in a while, leave that car at home and take a train to your work station to walk some distance to the office. If you come home early, jump on a bike and ride some kilometers to remove some toxins.

Other ways of engaging in physical activity, of course, involve getting to a fitness center or invest in gym equipment for your home practice.

Physical activity comes with the following benefits

  • Reduces your trips to the doctors
  • Keep you active and flexible to enhance mobility
  • Maintains a healthy weight
  • Prolongs your life

Call yourself to a meeting and ensure you are physically active if you have to live longer while in this beautiful country.

  • Surround yourself with a sound support system

Life is not all about waking up in the morning, going to work, coming back, getting your food, and sleep.

It would help if you broke that monotonous lifestyle. What happens when you are having a rough time at work?

Who do you share with? That is how we talk about the support system. How do you handle your emotional issues?

How do you spend your free time? In Mexico, the many recreational centers tell you why you need to have time out away from your regular schedule.

  • Have enough rest and sleep

Your body needs time to rejuvenate and repair worn out tissues. This is only possible when all organs are at rest.

Have you ever heard of workaholics who have shut down in the process of working? That is the effect of poor sleeping habits.

Some things like irritability and lack of use of logic and reasoning come from poor sleeping. All these slowly lead you to your early death; therefore, get enough rest and sleep wherever possible.

Have a schedule that you can’t break even if you have work on your desk. There is always another day as long as you are alive and healthy.

  • Get prompt and fast medical attention.

Some of the diseases, when detected early, can save a life. Mexico boasts of a vibrant health care system.

This is evident in how they were able to manage it during Covid times. With that, you need to go for regular checkups to avert and deal with some health issues when they can be managed.

Although we may have no full control of your life, there are things you can do to prevent untimely death. If you are to go to another world, let it be natural and not because of your negligence. 

Community Safety: 5 Rules for Gun Safety in Mexico

To buy a gun, learn to shoot, take lessons on safety & responsibility, and to regularly practice at the range or someplace, are all activities that have significant advantages. Owning and using a gun is a good investment if you follow the safety rules and use it for the right purposes. Many aren’t aware that owning and being able to use a gun has many other advantages besides defense and security. Also, lots of people are unaware of the many safety rules on firearms.

Some Advantages of Firearms

Owning a gun will teach you to be responsible or risk serious legal consequences. Knowing the dangers of mishandling a firearm incentivizes you to be always present and accountable for the gun. Once there is a gun in your hands, there is no room for a “mental vacation.”

Being absent-minded while carrying a gun can lead to accidental discharge that causes bodily or material damage to you or somebody else. That’s why responsible gun-owners who know the safety rules and risks are always mentally present while carrying a gun. And that’s a good brain exercise.

Another benefit of learning to shoot a gun is the self-confidence you get from knowing that you have acquired a vital skill. Shooting well is a self-defense skill, and just like all self-defense skills, it boosts your confidence. There are many other benefits of owning and learning to shoot a gun, but that isn’t the main focus of this article. So we’ll go straight to the safety rules for gun ownership in Mexico.

1. Control Access to the Gun

As soon as you own a gun, it is your sole responsibility to make sure no unauthorized persons can access it. Store and lock it up in a secure place. Carelessly storing your weapon increases the risk of someone finding and using it without your permission. Secure storage is particularly important if you have kids around.

There have been many accidents where kids access guns their parents stored carelessly, thereby causing harm to people or damaging properties. It’s also essential to keep the ammunition and gun separately. Doing so mitigates the risk of use by anyone who accesses it. Allow access to your firearm for responsible persons only.

2. Your Gun Muzzle Should Always Point in a Safe Direction

Don’t point a gun towards anything you have no intention of shooting. Accidental discharge can occur. By wrongly aiming your weapon, you increase the risk of damage to persons or property due to accidental discharge. Neglecting this simple rule can lead to someone’s death, as many cases of unintentional discharge happen every year.

The risk of accidental discharge is higher when you’re loading or unloading a gun. Always point the muzzle of your rifle up towards the sky, or down towards the ground. Do this anytime, even when you’re only “dry firing.” Pointing your gun wrongly just because you’re “dry firing” makes you learn that habit subconsciously, which you’ll find difficult to control with a loaded gun.

3.  Know What’s Behind, Besides, or in Front of Your Target

It’s essential to know what your bullet is likely to hit if you miss the target, like due to recoil or something. You can minimize recoil by using the proper mechanism, so you don’t have to hide the shot because of an accident, for fear of legal consequences.

But no matter what you do to prevent missing targets, sometimes you just got to miss. And if you aren’t aware of what lays ahead of your goal, you might wound someone or damage property once the bullet misses. A shot out of a gun is beyond your control.

4.  Don’t Rely Fully on The Safety Mechanism of Your Gun

Like all mechanical systems, your gun’s safety can fail at the worst moment, causing accidental discharge. Always assume that as long as a weapon is loaded, it can shoot. Therefore, you need to keep your finger off the trigger until you are ready to shoot.

Sometimes when you pull the trigger, a gun might not shoot. In such cases, you need to unload the arm while pointing the muzzle upwards or downwards and remove the affected cartridge. Not doing so can lead to accidental discharge later. Never lean a gun against anything. If it slides to the floor with considerable impact, it can fire.

Always lay the gun, pointing in a safe direction when temporarily not in use. Never assume your gun’s safety is on. If in doubt, double-check. The same goes for assumptions about storage and whether a gun is loaded.

5.  Know What Not to Do When Holding a Gun

Do not perform specific actions while holding a gun, or you must pay special care when doing such. It includes all actions that put your body in an awkward position, like climbing a tree, wall, jumping, etc. Make sure you can always control the direction of your gun even if you stumble or fall.


We’ve described the most important rules of gun-use to help you prevent accidents. Many other rules apply in certain circumstances, but these are very important and a must-know for every gun-owner.

Following the rules is your responsibility, which no one but you can fulfill. As a piece of final advice, always follow the instructions in the owner’s manual regarding ammo, handling, servicing, and more. You can read further about gun laws and other Mexican constituency concerns to understand the rules better.

Mexican Welders Awareness Campaign: Why Welders Need to Use Safety Equipment While Working

The nature of the job of a welder exposes him to constant risks. Professional welders are susceptible to several threats every minute they spend on the job.

Sparks, ultraviolet and infrared light, molten metal, and noxious fumes are some of the hazards that welders deal with on the job daily. As such, welders are encouraged to use personal protective equipment (PPE) every time.

This article discusses the reasons why welders should use safety equipment.

To Protect the Head

The head houses the brain and three other sense organs. Injuries to the head can result in dire consequences; hence it should be protected whenever there’s a possible risk.

Unlike other jobs requiring head protection such as construction, the primary potential hazards to the head are heat, flames, sparks, and pieces of molten metal.

Noxious fumes of zinc and manganese produced by the welding equipment are toxic. They can lead to symptoms akin to Parkinson’s disease, damage the lungs and central nervous system, and may lead to permanent loss of hearing. Welders are also at risk of permanent blindness due to bright lights from welding arcs.

Helmets, glasses, and respirators are safety equipment for head protection.

  • Welding Helmets

A welding helmet is as essential to welding as the welding machine and torch. Welding helmets protect the head, face, and hair from heat. Also, the powerful radiation resulting from the arc can quickly cause damage to the skin. Welding helmets should be sturdy and cover all of the face and head of the welder. Contemporary welding helmets have auto-darkening lenses that eliminate the need to flip the visor up and down in between welds and make it easier to produce better quality welds.

  • Glasses

Glasses do not offer as much protection as helmets. Still, spectacles can prove useful for simple jobs.

To Protect the Torso and Neck

While the neck and torso do not get involved in the welding process, these body parts are still at risk of getting hit by flying scrap metal and sparks, which may burn the welder or cause a fire. Jackets, aprons, and bibs are the safety equipment for the neck and torso.

  • Aprons

For the torso, aprons offer sufficient protective coverage. An advantage of using an apron is that it extends to the legs. Aprons are of sturdier material than welding jackets, and the open back makes it less restrictive. Bibs cover part of the neck and the entire clavicle.

  • Jackets

Jackets are one-piece PPE that cover the arms, shoulders, neck, and back. Welding jackets come in a variety of materials, from fireproof wool to leather. The choice of material to use depends on the temperature of the Workspace. The best way to wear welding jackets is with gloves and other personal protective equipment like bibs.

To Protect the Hands and Arms

In welding like most blue-collar jobs, there is extensive use of the hands to get work done. Welders are at risk of having their hands burned by sparks and molten metal, or cut by flying scrap metal or cutting tools. The safety equipment for protecting the arms and hands are gloves and welding sleeves.

  • Gloves

1 in 3 workplace injuries involves fingers or hands. Gloves are, therefore, one of the essential safety equipment.  Welding gloves should be sturdy and fireproof; at the same time, they should not impair the movement of the fingers and hand.

  • Welding Sleeves

Welding sleeves are used in conjunction with a prince and gloves to cover the arms. The sleeves are of durable, fireproof fabric that extends from the wrist to the shoulders. A variation of the welding sleeve called welding gauntlet has built-in glove portions. Welding sleeves are suitable for jobs requiring greater arm mobility seeing as they do not restrict the shoulders.

To Protect the Lower Limbs (Legs and Feet)

 When it comes to personal protective equipment, the legs and feet often get overlooked, this should not be the case. The lower limbs are at significant risk of getting hit by falling pieces of metal during weld-cut jobs, and they also receive the bulk of sparks and flames during the welding process. Hammers and other tools sometimes fall from heights and strike the toes. Safety equipment for the legs and feet are knee pads, boots, and welding chaps.

  • Knee Pads

Welding often requires the welder to be in kneeling positions. Knee Pads help to protect the knees in cases where the surface is rough. Knee pads have a tough exterior to withstand coarse surfaces, and a cushioned interior to make extended kneeling periods comfortable.

  • Boots

Boots, along with gloves, are perhaps the most well-known and used PPE. To protect the feet from flames and sparks, then it is best to use leather welding boots. The boots should be comfortable, and sturdy enough not to get pierced by any sharp objects lying about the workshop floor and should have steel caps to protect the toes from falling objects.

  • Welding Chaps

Welding chaps cover the legs and feet of the welder to help the wearer avoid being burned or injured. The best welding chaps are sturdy suede and leather. Welding chaps are of two styles; pant style, and full coverall style. The coverall style wedding chaps can also serve as an apron.


There are a host of dangers and risks posed in the workplace. It is the welder’s responsibility and best interest, not to eschew the use of PPE, whether great or small, while at work.

For more interesting posts on welding as a primary vocation for Mexicans, and all things Mexico, keep visiting Constituyente Ciudadana.

Seminar on How to Use Multi-process and Stick Welders for the Mexican Constituents

There are many ways of disseminating information about stick welders in Mexico. This could be an initiative of the manufacturer to create awareness of new stick welders in the market. The best way to choose participants of the seminar is to get leaders who will further spread the message to the target audience. These welders have enough power to finish out small projects as well as the big projects. Check here for best welding helmet:

What are some of the tips for making such a Multi-process and Stick Welder’s seminar successful?

Engage an event organizer

You may have the objective and the mission of the seminar at hand. This is a technical area and the best way to make this successful is to delegate the event organizing task to the experts. This gives you ample time to concentrate on other issues that come in handy to make the event successful. Moreover, it gives you a chance to get more ideas and opinions to make the event successful.

Use diverse marketing methods

How will Mexican residents know that there is an event around their area when there is no advertisement? We are in a digital era and this is the point you need to use the digital tools to market and advertise the seminar. It acts as a way of publishing the event. You never know who will get the information and what effort they will make to make it successful. It could be a sponsor or someone in the industry who may want to come in as an interested party just to make sure that the information is home.

Choose an appropriate date and a central venue

The victory of such an event is highly determined by the choice of date and venue for the event. When you give it such short notice then many people may miss out since they could have had other plans before the announcement. In case it is a day’s event then you need to make sure that you choose a central venue that is accessible to all. You may wish to have international participants this is also something that you also need to understand.

Use incentives to attract global participants

Yes, people have some for the seminar, what next? Human beings love free stuff. This is the time you need to come up with gifts or even subsidized rates when people book early. This is the reason the event organizer comes in handy to give you advice on what works best for you. When people book early then it gives you a prediction on the number of participants for planning.

Set the agenda

You need to communicate to people the reason why they need to come to the seminar. It is the agenda that drives people to make decisions to come or rather to even cancel some engagements just to make a date with you at this seminar.

In such a seminar you have to define your target audience for the matter on the best marketing and advertising strategies you will use to reach out to them.

What’s the Best Cooler Dispenser For The Citizen of Mexico

Mexico is a country that is characterized by both the desert and mountainous weather conditions. This is the reason that every home or office should invest in a cooler dispenser to make sure you have a constant supply of either cold or hot water depending on the prevailing weather conditions. One advantage of a dispenser is the fact that you have three options when it comes to the temperature- cold, hot and lukewarm. In your buying guide, you need to have this in mind, otherwise, you may end up buying one that only has hot and lukewarm but lacks the cold components. Surprisingly, this kind if dispensers are cheap and affordable now that they lack the refrigeration facilities to cool the water to very low temperatures.

In this article, we will look at what it offers to have the best cooler dispenser at home or in the office. Here are some of the relevant features that you need to look at.


This is an appliance that not only supplies clean water but also adds some sense of beauty and color to the room. You need to get a dispenser that is attractive in terms of its design and shape. Besides, the best dispenser is one that is a standalone appliance that has the stands and storage capacity for cups to enhance its functionality. Stainless steel design is pleasing and attractive.

Temperature regulation

This is a cooler dispenser and this means that you need to have the extreme temperatures on the water. You need to have the refrigeration and heating facilities all intertwined on the appliance to have this purpose.

Self-cleaning function

Water from the dispenser is known to be the cleanest and safest thanks to the inbuilt cleaning features. You have to make sure that this is a feature that is vibrant and well-articulated on the dispenser to prevent health-related complications.


As much as this is an electronic device, you need to make sure that there is some level of noise that the machine can tolerate. There is no need of getting an appliance for your home that you know very well it will just be a nuisance when it comes to the delivery of service. Look for a cooler dispenser with a noise reduction feature such that everyone is comfortable in the home.

Child safety lock

A cold dispenser is a disaster-in-waiting especially when you have toddlers who want to explore. This is both on the hot water and cold water. The hot water will burn them while the cold water is a source of respiratory complications. In this case, manufacturers have gone a notch higher when it comes to technology, there is a child safety lock such that you are sure a toddler cannot operate the machine in your absence. This is an issue that has made people shy away from cold dispenser due to its hazardous effect. Invest in a cold dispenser at home or on the business premises and be sure of safe and clean water for your household and employees in equal measure.

Why Mexicans have the Right to Own a Gun

Mexico is the benchmark of gun control in the entire world. They have the best and the most systematic gun-owning regulations that have made it globally renowned. First, this is a country that has only one gun store such that all firearms and guns are procured from a central point. The store is guarded and the paperwork you have to undergo to get a license to own one is just out of this world. We cannot fail to admit that smuggling is a challenge when it comes to gun control in the Mexican states. This is solely attributed to the powerful nature of the neighboring nations that have access to the country at will.

Why own a gun in the first place?

In most cases, citizens opt to own a firearm for gun self-defense. Self-defense with a gun is the sure way of protecting yourself at all times. The Federal government once noted a decrease in crime rates since everyone has self-protection measure and criminals automatically fear for their lives. In other countries, gun control measures are a little bit different for you have to be of a certain class to even think of applying for a gun and you must state valid reasons why you need one.

What are the facts of Owning a gun in Mexico?

  • As long as you own a firearm and want to enter this country, you must first declare it and get a permit before you are allowed to cross the borders. This permit is only issued by the Secretariat of National Defense not even the customs agents at the border have the powers to issue this permit.
  • The National Defense Secretariat is the only body that is allowed to deal with the issue of gun licensing and possession. It is the body that is also responsible for the operations of the only gun store in the country.
  • Every household is entitled to up to 10 firearms which include one handgun and the rest are long guns.
  • This is a country that differentiates gun possession and carrying a gun anywhere. Anyone can own a gun including foreigners as long as you keep it at home. It is only the uniformed officers that are allowed to carry guns around. However, there is a special population that has a permit to carry the guns around they include politicians, security personnel, landlords in the rural.
  • There is a transfer of firearms but only if the Secretariat is aware and both the buyer and the seller must be present at the time of transfer.
  • The body requires almost six papers to ascertain whether you are valid to own a firearm or not.
  • The permits must be renewed every year
  • The body has the mandate to revote the gun license under the specified conditions.
  • The basic qualifications to get a license in Mexico include

Ø Must be of sound mind
Ø must have a military training
Ø must have a valid reason why they need the firearm
Ø must have a clean criminal record
Ø Must be employed and show proof

This is a country that every nation needs to emulate and benchmark on the rules and regulations when it comes to gun control. This is for the safety of the nation and to prevent cases of homicides.

Laws On Guns As Self Defense Weapons In Mexico

Almost certainly Mexico has a some of the world’s strictest weapon control laws – making firearms hard to acquire legitimately. Numerous people believe that it is unlawful for nationals or occupants in Mexico to acquire guns. Still, that isn’t the situation. Since even though firearm laws in Mexico are far stricter than that of America’s, it does not imply that they are forbidden, especially for self-defense purpose. The 1917 Mexican Constitution ensures Mexico’s inhabitants the right to have guns of any sort in their possession for their self-defense and legal protection.

The Mexican constitution takes into consideration legal ownership of one small-caliber gun such as big5 guns with a few imperative provisos which are as follows –

  • The proprietor must be a Mexican national or an immigrant with lawful residency status.
  • The gun must be of small-caliber as explicitly cited by the laws.
  • Weapons that are forbidden by the federal law and those reserved for the selective utilization of the Army, Air Force, Navy, and National Guard are exclusive cases for keeping as self-defense in Mexico.
  • Average residents who need to buy guns for self-defense ought to first get permission from the government.
  • Further, as there are no private-sector gun shops in the nation, they should purchase guns through the Defense Department’s Arms and Ammunition Marketing Division (UCAM).
  • And fundamentally, the gun you have owned isn’t to be taken on the road.

The reason for the law is to accommodate self-defense in the bind of one’s own residence for which the big5 guns are sufficient to protect oneself for any kind of danger and won’t even break the law. It means you can primarily utilize a firearm against a person breaking into your home, for example, in a scenario in which he has an intention to harm you Also, according to the Mexican law, you need to prove that the offender had the grieve intention of hurting you since he was actively firing at you, seizing you, choking you, and so on. Without adequate proof, the offender can say that he was going to flee. Which weapons can’t be used as self-defense or need permit by the Mexico Laws?

The guns that require an import permit and cannot be used as self-defense weapons as per the Mexico laws are given below:

  • The gas-drove pistols and rifles as well as the constituent components and accessories of those weapons.
  • Any firearm and an accessories associated with firearms like ammunition irrespective of the caliber, sights, accessories, etc.
  • Also, keep in mind that the night-vision sight equipment, taser guns, pepper spray, are in fact on the prohibited items list, and will likewise need a license to import.

So, whether you are a resident or an outsider visiting Mexico, you should be especially watchful with these laws on weapon possession, as Mexican laws on possession and importation of guns as well as ammo are highly strict and can make you a violator. Follow the laws, and you’re safe to own big5 guns.

The Dream of the Citizen Constituent

The initiative of the Popular-Citizen Constituent emerged from a letter sent in May 2014 by Mr. Raúl Vera, inviting the holding of a first workshop “Towards the Citizen Constituent Assembly” on July 5 of the same year. Below we reproduce the text of this first letter and the signatures that subscribed it:

Based on the proposal of Bishop Raúl Vera López, the undersigned invite you to carry out the first Workshop on reflection on the contents and the starting route of the Citizen Constituent initiative. As a preamble to our next meeting, we anticipate some ideas from compañero Raúl Vera:

The dream of the Citizen Constituent *
“[…] We must bet on a kind of Alternative Constituent Congress . We must rebuild the legal architecture that guarantees true democracy in Mexico. In this way, through a peaceful and legal path , we will counteract the power acquired by a few families in the public and private sectors, which at this moment define the social model at the national level through simulated processes of democracy.

We have to think seriously about how we can rescue this nation . We are already many people in Mexico that think in this way and we do not want this transformation of the country to take a violent path.

In the first place , we have to design a way to reach what we want our nation to be; but the road itself must be understood as the gestation of a different scenario in the country. Even when it is in its infancy, this context must already guarantee the conformation of the quality of people who will take us to the country we want to be.

From the beginning of our journey as a nation, we must think about the profile of citizenship that knows how to delegate to those who represent it with all loyalty and truth, to shape the sociopolitical and socioeconomic structures that give our Mexican home the design that allows all and all Mexicans live in freedom, and with all the rights and adequate channels that guarantee that our voice is heard in the development of life in Mexico.

Secondly, the country must be characterized by a dynamism that allows continuous dialogue with citizens , a dialogue that facilitates permanent educational processes, which give equal access to all at a dignified level of life.

The beginning of everything is a kind of Alternative Constituent Congress that must have several stages. These must be expressly designed in order to generate, from a prospective perspective, a model of mature citizenship with the capacity to express and participate actively. It is not a question of arriving at any means to the goal of having a constitutional reform, but it is necessary to take small steps with an express disposition to increase the citizen’s awareness in which the processes allow the necessary growth of the people. It is not about creating a few super leaders, but, fully, all and all Mexicans, can really participate, knowing what they want for themselves and for the whole society, considering even the most vulnerable people and away from the neighborhood or of the daily social circle. We have to think that all the voices and all the aspirations of the country should be included in the new Constitution that we want. In this way, our Magna Carta will truly be the point of reference to combine the will of Mexico in respect for justice and the rights of all.

A first requirement is that everyone knows conscientiously what we have of Constitution at this time . What remains in it is really in favor of the progress of the Mexican population, and what has been cleverly reformed, that favors a few groups and people and harms the vast majority of citizens. To design the methodology and to put the Constitution in the hands of our people, the first actors will be academics and specialists in constitutional law, in methods of citizen participation and in pedagogy and educational tactics.

It is not about creating a small group. We have to put to work universities and higher education centers across the country that freely want to join this transformation process. It must be stated that it is a question of the Mexican people, in their totality, knowing the contradictions that exist within the Constitution and the measures that, based on constitutional laws, the federal government and state governments can take to expel from progress and of the dignified life to the citizens.

We must find a way to achieve a collaboration of many people, as well as its word is important, it is essential to train the critical citizen who can not only question the irregularities that have been introduced in the Constitution, but contribute with his word to the reconstruction of our laws.

The next step will be to build an educational process so that the whole of society can contribute to the reconstruction of the constitutional text; For this we will have to demand much in terms of the generation, in a differentiated way, of a path in which the different categories or sectors of citizens can contribute through their aspirations to justice and the welfare of their persons and their families and groups. , the elements that serve for the construction of the integral legal body that Mexico needs at this moment. This will not be in a general way, as we did in the first stage, but we will have to group the peasants, the indigenous people, the women, the students , the businessmen, etc. in an orderly manner , in order to obtain the sufficient information that is the basis for reconstructing the Constitution, taking into account what the citizens are suffering, the injustices to which they are subjected, the lack of functionality in the public service; We need laws that guarantee an adequate justice process. We have to let all sectors of the people express their needs and their complaints.

In the same way as in the previous phase, this participation is not only based on the Constitution, but to create awareness in the people of the capacity that gives the Constitution itself to provide their own laws. It is at this stage that a new country can be designed to open, in a dynamic and continuous manner, through the referendum and the referendum, citizen participation in the conduct of the country. It will also be the opportunity to introduce the revocation of the mandate and to update our Constitution with the principles of international law.

It is clear that also in this phase the presence of experts and experts is necessary to strengthen the contributions of our people. As with the revision of the Constitution, these specific groups that will have to be trained must have advisory services and sufficient means of information. If we want to be successful, we must be many who commit ourselves to walk alongside the different ones that sustain the whole life of the country.

Taking the word of our people in this consultative process, broad and plural, should return to the hands of academics and experts, so that with a revised Constitution and criticized by the same people , and with their respective suggestions and what is necessary to redo that text, work on its reworking. At the end of this work, you must return to the hands of our newly organized people , by specialized sectors and categories, so that you can once again give your word on this Constitution.

If we can talk about three processes: review and criticism, contribution to its reconstruction, and a new revision of the finished text , this path should generate a mature citizenship to take a very serious approach to the conduct of their country in a truly democratic spirit in which all of us are responsible for the life of our country.

Also in this dynamic of dialogue; where we will have known, helped and, reciprocally encouraged in all this way , will be revealed between us the quality and the moral quality , the capacity of authentic political leadership, to dispose, by consensus, to choose the people we want to represent us in the two chambers of the Congress of the Union. This election will be through the different electoral districts, still in force in our Constitution, it will no longer be through political parties . At the same time that we elect a Congress in a consensual manner, we will design the new path to integrate the government we want; with the people we want to govern us. Article 39 of the Constitution recognizes the sovereignty that the people of Mexico have to give themselves, at the moment they decide, the type of government they want. […] ”

The Workshop “Towards the Citizen Constituent Assembly” will be held next SATURDAY, JULY 5, in Mexico City, in a place to be confirmed. The work schedule will be from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.

We will tackle three major themes:
a) Diagnosis of the major national problems , for which we will work with the advances that have been made in this regard in the working sessions of the Permanent Tribunal of the Peoples – Chapter Mexico.
b) Presentation of the Proposal Towards the Citizen Constituent of Comrade Raúl Vera López.
c) Discussion and proposals on the Start Route of the Citizen Constituent.

Registration at the meeting venue will begin at 9 a.m. The details of the methodology that includes discussion in tables and plenaries will be announced 15 days in advance; once we have the information about the compañeras and the compañeros who have sent confirmation of their attendance.

(*) Summary of Chapter V “The Deception of Politicians and the Dream of a Citizen Constituent” from Bernardo Barranco’s book, The Social Gospel of Bishop Raúl Vera. Conversations with Bernardo Barranco. Mexico, Ed. Grijalbo, January 2014, pp. 121-143.

Invite: Raúl Vera López

Aguascalientes: Ramírez Carrillo Ernesto

Baja California: Aguilar Vásquez Víctor Manuel, Martínez Zazueta Iván, Morales Polo Aurora

Baja California Sur: Morales Polo Sergio

Chiapas: Alfaro Candelaria, García Aguirre Miguel Ángel, Gómez Sami Gabriel, Gómez Pablo César, Gómez Hernández Caralampio, Joachin López Wilmar, López Marian, López López Hernán, Magdaleno José Bernardo, Martínez Alfredo, Milton Zunun Fredy, Pérez Hernández Gelacio, Vázquez José Manuel,

Chihuahua: Almanza Mayor Horacio, Ávila A. Javier, Barraza Limón Laurencio, Castillo Castañeda Catalina, Gómez Gabino, González Emilia, Morales Vargas Rosalio, Quintana Víctor, Ruiz Arroyo Leticia,

Coahuila: De la Cruz Luis Manuel, Mata Victoria, Oteo Oropeza Gustavo, Vera López Raúl

DF: Albarrán González Álvaro, Alcázar Romero Jessica, Anaya Andrade Alfonso, Ávila A. Javier, Ayala Fernando, Barona Oropeza Elena, Bahena and Lome Benito, Bautista Martínez Hugo Manuel, Beltrán Baltimore, Cabrera M. Víctor Manuel, Chain Barquín Félix, Carlsen Laura, Cartagena Rivero Romeo, Castañeda Zavala Jorge, Cauzard Isabelle, Cervantes Ramírez María Soledad, Clares Fuentes Susana Margarita, Sergio Cobo, Concha Leonor Aida, Concha Miguel, Contreras Domínguez María Elena, Coronel Guzmán Judith, María Elena Corona, Cortés Bolívar Leonor, Cruz Claudia, Cruz Dávila Evangelina, Cuevas Moctezuma Alfonso M., Díaz Vázquez Román, Eibenschutz Catalina, Enríquez Castillo Cosme Martín, Escobar Casilda, Eslava Rocío, Esparza Martín, Espino Gallegos Luz del Carmen, Espinosa Raymundo, Fernández Martínez María Guadalupe, Flores Salmerón Moisés, Flores Olea Víctor, Galido Barajas Alejandro, Gallego Barbadillo Ricardo, Gallegos María del Carmen, García Martínez Ma Ría Luisa, García Morales Ericka, Gerardo Juan, Gershenson Daniel, Gomezcaña Eduardo, Gómez Vázquez Carlos, González Clara, González García María del Carmen, González Garduño Dulce, González Ortega Dan, González Ruiz José Enrique, Guerrero Manuel Ramos, Hastings García Isadora, Hernández Hernández Fernando, Grajales Platas Manuel, Hernández Linares Martín, Hernández Ruiz Margarita de la Asunción, Ibarra Vega Salvador, Jiménez Olin Ernesto, Juárez Jorge, Juárez Palacios Gabriela, Jusidman Clara, Laines Potisek Jaime, Loyo Martínez Carla Sofía, López Hernández Leobardo, Luna Fidencio, Lopez de la Cerda Rafael, Luna Parra Adriana, Luna Pineda Soila, Manzanares Víctor, Marín Fernández María Aurora, Márquez Fernando, Martínez Arreortua Raúl, Mejía Elizabeth, Melgoza Rojas Jaqueline, Mendizábal Lucero, Miceli Melgar Janeth, Mirón Lince Benito, Montemayor Rebeca, Montes Maricarmen, Montes de Oca Humberto, Montoya Pérez Luz María, Moreno Padilla María del Carmen, Nava Laura, Noriega García Pilar, Ortega Bravo Gustavo, Padilla Becerra Mario Antonio, Padilla López Ernesto, Padrón Flores Manuel, Peralta Puga Valentina, Pérez Acosta Amalia, Pérez Ríos Raúl, Pintado de Wit José Manuel, Puertas Pilar, Ramírez Funés Jesús Alejandro, Ramos Sánchez Silvia, Reza-Araujo Emilio, Rico Ramírez Roberto, Rivas Manzanilla José María, Robledo Chavarría José Antonio, Rodríguez Beltrán Adriana Matalonga, Roses Landa Octavio, Sáenz Laura, Salazar Cano Humberto, Sánchez Cruz Alan, Sánchez Norma, Sánchez Corona María Guadalupe, Sánchez Coss Martha Selene, Sánchez Soler Marta, Sánchez Suárez José Guadalupe, Santiago Lugo Patricia, Saucedo García Alfonso, Servitje Lucila, Santillán Ivonne, Soto Carlos Daniel, Soto Ramírez Ricardo, Suckaer Ingrid, Tellez Godínez León, Tello Chávez Marcos , Tovar Gómez Adriana Juana, Torres Osorno Luis Antonio, Ugarte Trangay Ximena, Valencia Mulkay Miguel, Vásquez Reyes Arturo Carlos, Váz quez Roa Liliana, Velarde Reyes Pablo, Velarde Reyes José Luis, Velarde Reyes Gloria, Villarreal Santos Altagracia, Villegas Salinas Nefi, Yesca González Juan Carlos, Zayola Adolfo, Zavala Fabián

Durango: Román Hilario, Villarreal Verónica

Edomex: Jara Rodarte Margarita, Madrid Hernández Reina, Martínez Sosa Gerardo, Mena Abraham Josefina, Ramírez Vázquez Pedro, Reyna José Antonio, Testa Enedina

Guerrero: Morlet Macho Javier

Hidalgo: Chew Francisco, Fuentes Cornejo Ana Lilia, García Hernández Martha Selene, Huitrón Moctezuma Roberto, Jiménez Juárez Antonina, Tapia Doniz Antonieta, Uribe Yury, Vilchis Jiménez Francisco

Jalisco: Díaz García Susana Gabriela, Luna Pauline

Michoacán: García Castrejón Ana María, Garduño Loperena Francisco Javier, Gómez Flores Alberto, Gutiérrez Morales José Raciel, Guzmán Escutia Fernando, Hernández Vázquez Joel, Melchor Román Juan, Mesa Jesús, Ochoa Franco Azanara, Ortega Madrigal Juan José, Rangel Graciela, Santiago Mirna Valdés Espinoza Liliana

Morelos: Antuñez Popoca, Barreda Marín Andrés, Bruno Figueroa Ilse Pilar, Bruno Figueroa Tania Nayeli, García Reynoso Juan Francisco, Leija Salas Alfonso, López and Rivas Gilberto, Pantitlán Aguirre María del Carmen, Sánchez Quiroz Magdiel, Sicilia Zardain Javier, Tomasini Padilla Fernanda , Vargas Rosío, Vargas Rosío, Zayago Lira Guadalupe, Zayago Lira Sachenka, Zayago Lira Vlasova,

Nuevo León: García Krauss José Luis

Oaxaca: Castillo Morga Joaquín, Castillo Morga Alejandro

Puebla: Gutierrez Otero Patricia, Moreno Garridoo Maria del Carmen

Querétaro: Aguilar Pérez Francisco, Alatorre Gómez Alejandro, González Godínez José Luis, Urretabizkaya Garbus Irene, Zamora Huerta Andrés Refugio, Flores del Castillo Jorge Alberto, Lavin Beristain Eduardo, Martínez Hernández Martín, Gualito Genaro, Pacheco Violeta, Tapia Rivera Fernando

Quintana Roo: Alpuche Cristhian, Quintanar González Rafael, Ramos Bustamante Salvador, Ramos Bustamante Emiliano Vladimir, Ramos Hernández Atzayatl Salvador

Veracruz: Rodríguez Merales Isaul, Segura Millán Rafael, Atenco Vidal Tlakatenco Julio

Zacatecas: Adame Rodríguez Francisco, Aguilar Cruz Elizabeth, Arredondo José Manuel, Arteaga Fernando, Carranza Ayala María Luisa, Castorena Ana Janeth, Cervantes Ramírez Rafael, De la Rosa Armando Yolanda, De Rocío Tower, Escobar Graciela, Fernández Andrade Víctor Manuel, Frausto Orozco Filiberto, Hernández Uriel, Jara Barrios Alfonso, Jáuregui Gustavo, López Aguilar Maura Elena, Montoya Gómez Víctor Hugo, Ojeda Animas Miguel Ángel, Orozco from Rafael Cave, Ortiz Fuentes Francisco Javier, Roberto Ovalle, Martínez Eravin Stone, Ramírez Carrillo Roberto, Rodarte Marcelino, Rodríguez Barragán Blanca Lilia, Rojas Báez Laurencio, Ruiz Edelmira, Solís Valenzuela Arturo

Mexican @ s abroad: Germany: Sabina Morales Rosas, Miriam Boyer González, Arturo Romero Contreras, Iliusi Vega Del Valle, Jacqueline Calzada Mendoza,

United States: Francisco Ximénez.

Dismantling of the Constitution of 1917

On the numbers and contents of the retrograde anti-constitutional counter-reforms promoted by neoliberalism

Articles 3, 27 and 123 of the original Constitution of 1917 opened the historical horizon of social constitutionalism. They established the right to free primary education, the rights of the Nation over the territory, agrarian rights and labor rights, union rights and social security, as well as many others of a collective nature linked to the former. By constitutional and legal mandate, the authorities had to interpret and apply the classic liberal rights in harmony and without detriment to the new social rights. Also, private property was subordinated to the public interest, the use of natural elements susceptible to appropriation was oriented to the equitable distribution of public wealth and the State was responsible for mediating the differences or conflicts between capital and labor.

For decades, the fundamental duties of the Mexican State, the constitutional modifications and legislative innovations, had as practical support the political, cultural and legal recognition of the people as the holder of national sovereignty, source of public power and sense of its exercise. The social contents and the nationalist principles of the Constitution of 1917 were the pillars around which government policies were defined and, in particular, the normative policy of the postrevolutionary State. Finally, the institutional development of public life as a whole was guided by the achievement of social justice and the construction of participatory democracy.

However, neoliberal constitutionalism has meant the erosion, emptying or outright destruction and massive and systematic violation not only of economic, social, cultural and environmental rights, but also of multiple individual rights, as well as the loss of national sovereignty and the surrender from the territory and national wealth to large transnational corporations and their local partners.

Despite the official demand for the rule of law and the already caricatured doctrinal principles of supremacy, rigidity and constitutional inviolability, at the end of Felipe Calderón’s term of office, 205 decrees of constitutional reforms had been published in the Official Gazette of the Federation . During the dizzying government of Enrique Peña Nieto the figure has reached 220 decrees.

The Mexican Constitution is the fundamental Latin American norm, in force, with greater longevity; however, it is also the Constitution that has been reformed the most times. The first reform took place in 1921 and fell on article 73, which is the article that has been modified on more occasions, adding up to now 71 reforms. From major to minor, the most reformed articles in the history of the Constitution of 1917 are: 72, 123, 27, 74, 89, 107, 115, 4, 79, 94, 76 and 97. Paradigmatic articles of Mexican constitutionalism Twentieth century, like 3, 27 and 123, have been modified, respectively, in 9, 19 and 24 occasions. Article 130 has been amended only once, precisely during the tenure of Carlos Salinas de Gortari.

To date, the modifications to constitutional articles reach 605. The decree of reforms or additions to the most recent Constitution dates from July 7 of this year. In total and not counting the transitories, 109 constitutional articles have been modified, so only 27 have remained in their pristine state, they are: 8, 9, 12, 13, 23, 38, 39, 47, 50, 57 , 62, 64, 68, 80, 81, 86, 91, 118, 120, 121, 124, 125, 126, 128, 129, 132 and 136. That is to say, 80.15% of the constitutional articles have been modified, so that only 19.85% of the original articles remain intact. Each article, of the 136 that make up the constitutional text, has been modified on average 4,448 times. It should be noted that 4 of the 19 transitory articles that also make up the constitutional text have been modified. Also, on 4 occasions transitory articles of reform or addition decrees have been modified, all of them between 1999 and 2009. As a curious fact, in less than two days, article 4 was reformed three times: twice on October 12, 2011 and once again on the 13th.

Not counting the erratum or the reforms on transitory articles or the articles reformed more than once in the same period, the sexenios in which more constitutional articles have been modified were: Felipe Calderón’s with 61 articles through 36 decrees, the of Ernesto Zedillo with 47 through 18 decrees, Miguel de la Madrid with 44 through 18 decrees and Carlos Salinas with 35 through 15 decrees. If you include errata, reforms on transitory articles and reforms on the same article in the same sexennium, the numbers are as follows: Felipe Calderón 110, Ernesto Zedillo 77, Miguel de la Madrid 66 and Carlos Salinas 55. With In 19 decrees, Fox modified 31 articles (21 without counting the erratum or reforms on transitory articles or articles reformed more than once in the sexennium).

In 1994 Salinas modified 2 articles and Zedillo 27, making it until now the year in which most articles of the Constitution have been altered. Only that Salinas had already modified another 27 articles in 1993. In 1987 Miguel de la Madrid modified 18. In 1996 Zedillo changed another 22 and 17 more in 1999. In 2007 Felipe Calderón reformed 21 articles, 18 in 2008, 24 in 2011 and 20 in 2012. Peña Nieto modified 15 articles in 2013 and 20 in 2014. Between 1982 and 2014, only in the years of 1984, 1989, 1991 and 1998, no changes were made to the constitutional text. In 1999, 10 decrees of reforms or additions to the Constitution were issued. In 2007, as in 2013, 9 were issued. Of the 220 decrees of reforms that have been issued, 55%, 121, have taken place during neoliberalism, that is, in the last six six-year terms. In this period, on average, 20.16 decrees of constitutional reforms have been issued per sexennium. Needless to say, precisely these have been the decrees that formally imposed the mortal counter-reforms for the economic, political and cultural life of the Mexicans.

In the last 33 years the Constitution has been modified at an average speed of 3.66 decrees per year. In this same period, apart from the erratum, the reforms on transitory articles and the reforms on the same article in the same sexennium, constitutional articles have been modified 238 times. This means that, in the last six sexenios, the Constitution has been modified at an average rate of 7.21 articles per year. Enrique Peña Nieto has modified 30 articles through 15 decrees. If you include the erratum, the reforms on transitory articles and the reforms on the same article in the same sexennium, Peña Nieto has modified a total of 44 articles.

As part of the balance of this war against the Mexican Constitution, within the framework of the Mexico Chapter of the Permanent Tribunal of the Peoples, hundreds of cases have been documented and made visible that account for the accumulation of grievances that weigh on the population as a result of the retrograde anti-constitutional counter-reforms promoted by neoliberal governments. The adjustments of the fundamental law and the consequent legal adjustments have been consolidated from the disfigurement and dismantling of the social contents and the nationalist principles of the Mexican Constitution of 1917.

The violence that our country has suffered has not been sustained solely by the lack of observance of the laws or the lack of a legal culture that respects the rule of law. Neoliberalism not only violates the law and magnifies the distance between community and norm, but also legalizes violations of people’s rights, that is, promulgates juridical norms that establish staggered privileges and authorize generalized dispossessions for the purpose of to subordinate the public good to the particular interest of a few.

Neoliberal constitutionalism has canceled and reversed the historical achievements of the class struggle by restricting the role of the Mexican State as guarantor of the sovereign process of production, reproduction and development of social life. The fulfillment of the basic state obligations related to the agrarian distribution, the arbitration of social conflicts and the conciliation of class interests through the exercise of presidential attributions and social reformism, seems not only to have been put on hold, but denied in the absolute thanks to the preservation of the presidential power oriented to the subordinate transformation of the national economy, politics and culture. The recount of the constitutional alterations occurred in the last six sexenios reveals the details of the process.