banni grassland upsc

The Book is a compilation of the research work, relating to more than 250 species of birds found in the Banni area of Kutch, Gujarat. Later, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has classified the grass cover of India into five major types (Dabadhghao and Shankarnarayanan 1973). GAU. conditions. The monotony is broken for the traveller and the sheep and goats munch and crunch happily on the proteinous pods. areas It is still referred to as Asia’s finest natural grassland, but all that’s left in Banni are a few green patches amid parched land. Though declared a protected forestmore than half a century ago Gujarat state's forest department has recently p… Pastoralists of Banni now supply 60,000 litres of milk per day produced by their animals. It is a stunted forest growths of diverse grass species. Pastoral lifestyle of the communities not only conserved its rich animal genetic resources but also protected the Banni grassland ecosystem. Periodic droughts and low, erratic rainfall makes for even more inconducive conditions. The book contains short descriptions and photographs of all the recorded bird species of Banni Grassland for researchers, academicians, birdwatchers, 1. These are fairly feasible and reasonable propositions without altering the  existing  land  ownership  rights  and  hinge  primarily  on  usufruct  rights  and  institutional mechanisms for managing resources jointly by the government agencies (primarily the Forest Department) and local community. Three consecutive severe droughts occurred from 1985 to 1987 and another two consecutive droughts from 1995 to 1996. It was instituted in 1888 at Shimla by Sir Henry Mortimer Durand. 85351. The age group ranged from 35 to 92 years, with the average age being 64, and most respondents had lived around the animal herds all these years. Even while some of them managed to move to urban centres or explore alternative livelihood options, many more have been forced to undertake long migrations or become casual labourers. The main reasons for the degradation include increasing soil salinity, invasion of Prosopis juliflora, grazing pressures, water scarcity, desertification and climate change. Despite tough survival conditions, Banni buffaloes are the most productive cattle in India and have recently been recognized by the National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources as the 11th distinct breed of the nation (NBAGR, Haryana). Patel and V. Devi. reserves, 85705. April 2016 PDF. 99515. However, the scenario started changing after Independence when flexible government regulations paved the way for a pastoral mode of life away from nomadism, the direct effect of which was felt by the Banni. At the region and cluster level, it seems to be a problem in Region II (42.25 per cent), Cluster IV (40.42 per cent), Cluster I (34.15 per cent), Cluster II (33.59 per cent) and Cluster III (29.63 per cent). They have co-existed with the lions, which the Gir National Park was created to preserve, for these thousand years. The Banni grassland of Gujarat (near Rann of Kutch) ... Study Material for UPSC IAS, Civil Services & State PCS Examinations . June 2016 PDF-Content. For Prelims: POCSO Act provisions. A large component of the food we eat consists of grasses such as corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley, rice and sugarcane. Among them, 118 are resident to Banni, 76 are resident/short migratory, and 68 are migratory. The Llanos grasslands have made into the biggest grasslands due to their vast area of 570,000 sq. While the area is known for its scarce rainfall and semi-drought conditions, it is for the first time in 13 years that the Maldharis, the nomadic natives of Banni , are leaving their villages as water gets scarce. This was mentioned as a major problem in Cluster III (40.42 per cent) followed by Cluster II (35.59 per cent) Region II (35.21 per cent) and Cluster IV (27.66 per cent). The Birds of Banni Grassland" Home of Brave; The Golden House; Also Read: Current Affairs 2020 For May 05 | Daily Updated Quiz On National & International Affairs. Grassland Degradation: In general the degradation of grasslands takes place due to droughts, invasion of exotic species, expansion of salinity, overgrazing, encroachment of grasslands for agriculture and industrial development, planting woody species, etc. On the whole 46.09 per cent of the respondents had attributed this to be of high severity. May 2016 PDF-Content. establish a The human population of Banni has decreased from 14,389 in 1981 to 10,949 in 1991 (24 per cent) and livestock population has declined from 49,240 in 1982 to 26,084 in 1992 (47 per cent). The Banni grassland ecosystem—on the southern edge of the Great Rann—is a major grazing land for maldharis. Based on the people’s perception it was found that in Kachchh the major factors that cause degradation were invasion of P. juliflora, salinity, overgrazing, agricultural expansion, immigration of cattle, drought and decline in palatable species. 1957. Banni Grasslands. They are usually seen with long wooden sticks and a water pot hanging from their shoulders, moving with a herd of sheep, goat, camels or cattle. From these figures it is evident that eastern Banni has already lost its capacity to sustain human as well as livestock population and the western part of Banni too is slowly losing its capacity. The Banni Grasslands, located in Kutch, Gujarat, supports the traditional graziers of this region. While the condition of reserved vidis is generally good (e.g., the Rampura grasslands in Dahod), the non-reserved vidis are in terrible condition due to mismanagement, corruption and neglect (Grassland Chapter 2009). Assam Wildlife and the new Biswanath Wildlife park with Brahmputra flowing in environments. Rajasthan; Gujarat ; Madhya Pradesh; Karnataka; Q.12) In order … Space Application Centre (SAC) ISRO, Ahmedabad. The park is home to large breeding populations of elephants, wild water People and Livestock: Livestock being the mainstay of the Banni inhabitants, the grassland tract is widely identified as a major cattle-breeding tract of Gujarat. With the above view, an assessment based on primary and secondary data between the Pre-Independence and Post-Independence period was carried out to understand the very basis of sustenance of the livelihood of the Banni Maldharies. However, in Banni today, the nomadic pastoralists' search for fodder and water has become an unending process. Salinity is highly variable from 1.0 (very low) to over 15.0M mhos/cm and forms 90 per cent of the area under moderate to very high salinity and pH ranges between 6.5 and 8.5. A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. Grasslands are found where there is not enough regular rainfall to support the growth of a forest, but not so little rainfall as to form a desert. Llanos has two distinguishable areas of grasslands: areas that are considerably wet due to seasonal flooding and some relatively drier portions. Banni Grasslands are known for rich wildlife,biodiversity and supports numerous animal genetic resources like Banni buffalo, Kankrej Cattle, Sheep, Goat, Camel and horse. ‘The grassland and fodder resources of India.’ Indian Council of Agriculture Research, New Delhi. In Region I, although there is no agriculture, the response of people (9.04 per cent) was based on encroachment along the fringes of Banni. km. The yearly rate of expansion of P. juliflora in Banni grassland is about 4488 ha/year (Jadhav et al.1998), and it is expected that the weed would take over 56.42 per cent of Banni by 2020 (Sastry et al. The total grass cover in Saurashtra and Kachchh is 14.93 per cent. E Books. In spite of its significance, the Banni grassland is facing severe degradation and gradually losing its capacity to sustain human and livestock population. Unless otherwise specified, all content is made available under the CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 Licence, though additional terms may apply. Droughts are a recurring phenomenon. Prosopis juliflora invasion: According to stakeholders, Prosopis juliflora is by far the most important reason for the degradation of the Kachchh grasslands as is evident from the table below. Overgrazing: Grazing is good and suitable for any rangeland to increase its productivity but overgrazing is harmful and often suicidal for any land. The Birds of Banni Grassland is book based on environment and consists of a compilation of the research work, relating to more than 250 species of birds found in the Banni area. Agricultural Expansion: During the village level meetings and field observations, it was found that local villagers have encroached on the grasslands for cultivation in many cases. Prep for a quiz or learn for fun! Launched in 1971, it is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme that aims to Agriculture is practically impossible in Banni since it is ecologically not viable. These grasslands are home to a pastoral community called the Maldhari. 85021. It is very crucial to frame proper management strategies, which are essential to reducing the impact of this factor on grass resources and  to improve/change the existing fodder crisis scenario. For over 15 years it has been studying the plant, bird and marine life in the Rann of Kutch. It is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments. Coastal Grasslands: the coastal grasslands in India are spread over beach sand forming a thick mat-like cover. So, if you are a nature enthusiast, hit the gas and head to Chhari Dhand. Published by Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology (GUIDE), Bhuj and GEER Foundation, GoG, Gandhinagar. They are found all over the Banni grasslands, a part of the Great Rann of Kutch in Gujarat. Birding spot Kutch Kutch is the second largest district in India covering an area of 45, 612 sq. The Gujarat State Forest Department had initially planted about 31,550 ha exclusively of Prosopis juliflora as a measure to check the advancement of the Rann in the year 1960-61. The least response in this regards was documented from Region I, with 32.39 per cent of the respondents stating this as a reason (Table 1). The region is believed to have been formed due to seismic activities and marine processes operating in the north along with fluvial deposition by the Indus and other rivers during the Vedic period. Policies should recognise the opportunities to rejuvenate the local economy in the region through management of the woody invader. This was followed by Region I (97.48 per cent), Cluster II (93.22 per cent), Cluster IV (82.98 per cent) and Cluster I (75.61 per cent). It is the oldest tournament in Asia and third oldest in the world after Football Association Cup of England and Scotland Football Association Cup. After driving around the Banni grasslands, it offers a decent place to eat lunch and avoid the heat of mid-day. Among the three types the most predominant was good grass (based on denseness) with 43,848.59 ha forming 62.41 per cent of the total area of grass of the region; the second region is the grasslands of Naliya extending to 65,426.86 ha (18.7 per cent) of the total area of Kachchh. Grassland mapping in Gujarat using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The household survey data and group discussions also reveal the preference of large sections of the pastoral community for grassland regeneration over incomes from wood-charcoal. The topography of the area is undulating, with depressions on the ground. These policies can be backed with proper guarantees on usufruct rights for grass resource use from areas reclaimed from woody invasion and the economic exploitation of woodlot resources either as timber or non-timber produce. The Birds of Banni Grassland is book based on environment and consists of a compilation of the research work, relating to .. safeguard natural and managed ecosystems. The district is poorly endowed in terms of its land quality, as about 23,310 sq km (51 per cent) of the area is covered by saline marshy deserts (Greater and Little Ranns) situated at 230 19’ to 230 52‘ N latitude and 680 56’ to 700 32’ E longitude. Natural grassland is an ecosystem in which the dominant species are perennial grasses, there are few or no shrubs and trees are absent or few in numbers. About Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology (GUIDE) The GUIDE is located at Bhuj. They also provide fodder for a large population of livestock. From the stakeholder consultation and interviews this was given as one of the reasons for degradation or shrinkage of grasslands. Question Bank. New Delhi: iCAR. Based on the analysis at Kachchh it was evident that the response towards this factor as a reason of degradation was less (22.86 per cent). July 2016 PDF. The Maldharis have lived in the Gir National Park, in the Banni Grasslands Reserve area, for the past thousand years. Great- Nicobar- Andaman and Nicobar Island, Agasthyamala - (Western Ghat) Kerala & Tamilnadu. OGP InstaClasses- Classroom Program - 2021 (Online) OGP InstaClasses - Classroom Program - 2021 (Offline - Bangalore) Integrated Prelims cum Mains (IPM) Program - 2021; Year-Long Mains Test Series - 2021 ; INSTA Prelims Test Series Program - 2021; Prelims Thematic Test Series (June -2020 to … The grasslands of Kachchh were demarcated into two important grassland regions, one of which forms the Banni grasslands, extending to a total of 2, 59,672.80 ha, covering 27.06 per cent of the total area of Kachchh. Akanksha Ghotkar . 2016. 85051. ‘Prosopis juliflora, the Precocious Child of the Plant World,’ Indian Forester 104.1:14–18. Bhavnagar district has the maximum grass cover with 24.02 per cent of its area under grass, while Surendranagar has the lowest grass cover at 6.69 per cent. Maldharis are a tribal herdsmen community in Gujarat, India.Originally nomads, they came to be known as Maldharis after settling in Junagadh district (mainly Gir Forest). The IBAs contain a range of habitats, such as wetlands, mudflats, microhabitats in biodiversity hotspots, grasslands and scrublands, making them excellent indicators of biodiversity richness (India’s 5 th National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2014). Vegetation is double layered storey with closed canopy which hardly permits a single ray of sunlight to penetrate in the natural vegetation. This being an illegal activity peoples’ response in this regard might not be true but from the analysis using RS and GIS and land use data from the government records, it is evident that this is a problem vis-à-vis the loss of grasslands. Geostationary Orbit lies on the same plane as the equator where as geosynchronous Orbit has a different inclination; Meghalayan age Reddy, C.V. Konda. Kaziranga protected area was established in 1904 and is located on the edge of They are known for rich wildlife and biodiversity and are spread across an area of 3,847 square kilometres. Water scarcity 3 Where is the Banni Grassland ? About 150 species of migratory and resident birds are found here along with a rich diversity of herpetofauna and other invertebrates. Within society, the maldharis are traditional dairymen, supplying essential commodities like butter, ghee, milk, wool and manure to urban towns and villages. Date Campaign Name Amount Organization Contributor Last Name Contributor Middle Name Contributor First Name Employer Occupation cpf_cntrb_info_res_address 2. Plantation of Woody species: This factor seems to influence the degradation at a moderate level as mentioned by the stakeholders. Prime Minister Narendra Modi released a book titled “The Birds of Banni Grassland” in New Delhi. They are known for rich wildlife and biodiversity and are spread across an area of 3,847 square kilometres. Grasslands are generally open and fairly flat, and they exist on every continent except Antarctica. For example, the Banni and Vidi grassland of Rann of Kachch, Gujarat. 1978. This clearly emphasizes that overgrazing is one of the main causes for the degradation of the grasslands of Kachchh. 686. They feel that local villagers should be given importance while planning the sharing of benefits. July 2016. This video is unavailable. 86323. After a critical analysis of the results of the present study together with the inferences of previous studies, P. juliflora can be considered as one of the most valuable tree species for the dry arid lands where nothing else grows. Any single cause of change may have multiple effects to the long-term scenario. In addition to this, the community produces good quality ghee (clarified butter) and mava (condensed milk) for their own consumption and sometimes for sale. This resulted in the invasion of P. juliflora in good soil. Watch Queue Queue. Impact of the degradation of Banni: The crucial interplay of the above said factors played a pivotal role in decreasing the sustainability of the Banni and declining human population trends. The management of the Banni grassland as a Protected Forest needs to be amended transferring it into a Joint Forest Management (JFM) framework involving pastoral communities and the Forest Department. 32 crores a year to the milk economy. The ‘Banni Grasslands’ in Kutch, Gujarat, span over 2,600 square kilometres. Dumhal is a dance performed in Jammu and Kashmir by the Watal tribes. More on the Topic: This is the scheme of the Reserve Bank of India, introduced in the year 2004. August 2016 PDF. that are meant to demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and nature. Farm Management Notes for Asia and the Far East 5. 1989. the north-west. swamp deer other than the one-horned rhino. Banni 2 Why are they leaving Banni grasslands ? In 1955, an area of about 2700 sq km of Banni was designated as ‘Protected Forest’ (PF) and brought under the purview of the Indian Forest Act, 1927, while the ownership remained with the Revenue Department of the Gujarat Government. Prior to the invasion of Prosopis juliflora, people used to sustain themselves only from a Livestock Based Income (LBI), but now there are many livelihood and economic options generated through the P. juliflora and their income has increased manifold from Non-Livestock Based Income (NLBI). This situation predominantly affected the soil moisture and led to grassland degradation (GUIDE 1998). Major land use changes introduced in the colonial and post-colonial periods led to a gross reduction in traditional grazing resources. The topography of the area is undulating, with depressions on the ground. These grasslands are found on the fertile river plains of the Indo-Gangetic plain, Brahmaputra plain and rivers of central India like Narmada, Cauveri, Krishna, etc. 2010. The Birds of Banni Grassland is book based on environment and consists of a compilation of the research work, relating to more than 250 species of birds found in the Banni area of Kutch, Gujarat. The nomadic pastoralism in Banni is a major reason for the failure of the White Revolution in this area. GUIDE. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Aqua Regia? Not anymore. between. Answer- Gold. grassland 2006). Environment - UPSC > Banni Grassland > Flashcards Flashcards in Banni Grassland Deck (10) Loading flashcards... 1 Where are Maldhari leaving their villages ? Banni Grasslands Reserve: I forms a belt of arid grassland ecosystem on the outer southern edge of the desert of the marshy salt flats of Rann of Kutch in Kutch District, Gujarat The Chari-Dhand wetland conservation reserve: It is located on the edge of arid Banni grasslands and the marshy salt flats of the Rann of Kutch in Kutch District, Gujarat State in India The grasslands (Horn et al. K. Kathju, V. Vijay Kumar, G.A. ... Banni grassland reserve is also located in the Kutch district of Gujarat. Overgrazing by native as well as migrant livestock is another major problem in Banni. Decline in Palatable Species: This is one of the secondary reasons, which is mainly influenced by drought and overgrazing. Grass may be used for building homes and furniture (walls, thatch, matting, brooms), lawns, sports fields and as components of some cosmetics and medicines. The traditional pastoral castes include Rabari, Bharwad, Charan, Jat, Mutva and others. 2008). 2011. Prosopis posed a natural threat to the endemic flora and fauna due to its high invasive abilities. Many school/college exams, entrance exams, and interviews require you … of Environmental Sciences, Sarguja University. If attempted, this will be an unprecedented experiment with high potential for success. The reserved vidis are managed by the Forest Department while the non-reserved vidis are given to various agencies for protection, e.g., Gaushalas and panjrapoles (trusts that maintain aged cattle), Maldhariscooperative societies, village panchayats and milk cooperatives. India has 18 biospheres reserves, of which 11 have been included in the Thivakaran, P.S. Prosopis pods are detrimental to cows. The introduction of Prosopis juliflora by the Gujarat State Forest Department in the northern fringes of Banni to check the ingression of salinity from the Rann into the Banni and other fertile lands of Kachchh has over time converted the grassland into woodland. 2009. It is found where rainfall is about 15-75 cm per year not enough to support a forest, but more than that of true desert. The total grasslands amounted to 12,233.50 ha, which is 2.41 per cent of the grassland of Kachchh (Grassland Chapter 2009). GUIDE 2004. A traveller s notes: They are known for rich wildlife and biodiversity and are … (Table 1): Severity of factors influencing Grassland Degradation in different Regions and Clusters based on Questionnaire Survey. Examination. Migration is primarily a strategy to optimize living conditions by moving to areas which are warmer and have more food. Current Affair 2020 Answers. Watch Queue Queue Grasslands are known by many names, such as the Prairies in North America, the Pampas in South America, Steppes in Central Eurasia and the Savannas in Africa. 85745. The construction of a dam and reduction of fresh water inflow acted as a catalyst for the spread of P. juliflora. It combines the natural and social sciences, economics and education to The Book is a compilation of the research work, relating to more than 250 species of birds found in the Banni area of Kutch, Gujarat. Introduction of P. juliflora to stop desertification in the initial years and lack of proper silvicultural practices led to the spread of this species as a weed. These structures harvest rainwater. 85711. ‘Biodiversity threat through exotic species monitoring and management using remotely sensed data and GIS techniques - A case study of Banni (Kachchh) Gujarat. Dumhal is a renowned folk dance performed by the Watal tribes of Kutch. This needs to be accompanied by eradication of woody invaders from at least a small portion every year and controlling re-invasion of the reclaimed area by bringing the reclaimed area under joint management  of  communities  and  the Forest  Department.

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